Friday, May 22, 2020
A Brief Account on Andre LefevereÃ¢â¬â¢s Manipulation Theory Abstract: In 1990s,there was a wave breakthrough in translation theory made by Andre Lefevere and Susan Bassnett. They went beyond the word-to-word or text level in translation studies and developed it to culture studies, later termed by Mary Snell-Hornby as Ã¢â¬Ëcultural turnÃ¢â¬â¢. This article mainly deals with one kind of culture turn put forward by Andre Lefevere, that is, translation as rewriting. Ã¤ ¸ Ã¥âº ½Ã¨ ® ºÃ¦â"â¡Ã§ ½â http://www.xzbu.com/5/view-2131279.htm Key Words: cultural turn; rewriting; ideology; patronage; poetics Ã¤ ¸ Ã¥âº ¾Ã¥Ëâ Ã§ ± »Ã¥ ·: I06Ã¦â"â¡Ã§Å' ®Ã¦ â¡Ã¨ ¯â Ã§ :D Ã¦â"â¡Ã§ « Ã§ ¼â"Ã¥ ·:1006-026X(2009)-14-0168-02 1. Introduction In the year 1990,after the publishing of the book named Translation, History and CultureÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There are two main factors that manipulate the literature, one is within the literary system and the other is outside it. As for the former one, it refers to the professionals within the literary system which include critics and reviewers (whose comments affect the reception of a work), teachers (who often decide whether a book is studied or not) and translators themselves. With regard to translators themselves, Fitzgerald is a good example. He has successfully translated the Persian poem Rubaiyat written by Omar Khayyam. Rubaiyat is a love poem composed of quatrains which makes it ve ry difficult to translate. Fitzgerald has translated it so beautifully that his translation was accepted by a large number of English speakers. Thus, Rubaiyat come into English literature. And FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s translated version is widely considered to be superior to the source text. As for the latter one, it refers to patronage outside the literary system. Patrons may be an influential, powerful individual in a given historical era and groups of people, which include publishers, the media, a political class or party, and institutions which regulate the distribution of literature and literary ideas. These are Ã¢â¬Å"the powers that can further and hinder the reading, writing, and
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Lorraine HansberryÃ¢â¬â¢s A Raisin in the Sun can be deliberated as a milestone in American art because it speaks on so many concerns vital during the 1950s in the United States. The 1950s are commonly ridiculed as an era of complacency and conformity, embodied by the growth of money-making culture and suburbia. Underneath the economic victory that followed America in the years after World War II brewed a rising racial tension. The stereotype of 1950s America as a land of blackÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfied with their lesser status resulted in an upsurge of social anger that would find a voice in HansberryÃ¢â¬â¢s masterpiece. However, the significance was somewhat lost and skewed by the White Americans as so thoroughly described in Robin BernsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s article. Ã¢â¬Å"Inventing the Fishbowl: White Supremacy and the Critical Reception of Lorraine HansberryÃ¢â¬â¢s A Raisin in the SunÃ¢â¬ is written by Bernstein who is a professor of African and African American Studies at Harvard. Bernstein wrote an exceptional article in which every piece of evidence brought forth, such as the mention of prejudiced views of the audience, constructing African American culture to a point of comprehension and lastly disregarding HansberryÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions on class and politics reveals every bit of truth behind her argument. She states that White Americans fail to recognize that A Raisin in the Sun could have both general and specific applications because individuals of the majority need to produce a paradoxical illusion called the fishbowl.Show MoreRelatedLorraine Hansberry s A Raisin1120 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"A raisin in the sunÃ¢â¬ was written by Lorraine Hansberry. The play was not expected to do so well because it had one white cast member, an inexperienced director, and an untried playwright. Set in the south side of Chicago in the 1950s, the play begins in the morning in the Youngers apartment. Their apartment has two bedrooms, one for mama and Beneatha, and o ne for Ruth and Walter, while WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s son Travis sleeps on the couch in the living room. Ruth gets up first and talks and Walter and TravisRead MoreLorraine Hansberry s A Raisin1474 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLorraine Hansberry created the play A Raisin in the Sun. A Raisin in the Sun recounts an anecdote about The Youngers who is a poor African American family living on the Southside of Chicago. A chance to escape from neediness comes as a $10,000 extra security watch that the female authority of the family (Lena/Mama) gets upon her significant other s passing. Lena s kids, Walter and Beneatha, each have plans with the cash. The most established child, Walter (a man of 35 with a spouse and a youthfulRead MoreLorraine Hansberry s A Raisin1758 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesare located right within the Ã¢â¬Å"Black MetropolisÃ¢â¬ . Lorraine HansberryÃ¢â¬â¢s play A Raisin in the Sun takes place in Southside Chicago in the 1950s. It revolves around the Younger family who bought a house i n a white neighborhood with the money of Big WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s insurance check. But they are facing problems from the neighborhood as the Ã¢â¬Å"welcoming committeeÃ¢â¬ offers to buy the house of off them just so they will not move into the neighborhood. In the play A Raisin in the Sun one of the many issues the YoungerRead MoreLorraine Hansberry s A Raisin1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A Raisin In The Sun by Lorraine Hansberry is a realistic fictional drama in which the play s title and the characters represent the play s theme. The play focused on black American struggles to reach the American Dream of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness during the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. The idea of everyone having the chance to achieve a better life should exist for all. Hansberry created her title using a line from Langston HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ poem Ã¢â¬Å"A Dream DeferredÃ¢â¬ the original poem wasRead MoreLorraine Hansberry s A Raisin869 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand I pass them cool quiet looking restaurants where them white boys are sitting back and talking bout thingsÃ¢â¬ ¦sitting there turning deals worth millions of dollarsÃ¢â¬ ¦sometimes I see guys donÃ¢â¬â¢t look much older than meÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢- (1.2.226). A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry was published in 1959, develops the plot of an African American family facing a war against racism in the slums of Chicago. They are a family of 5 squeezed in a two-bedroom apartment, they are restricted socially and financially withRead MoreLorraine Hansberry s A Raisin1147 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn A Raisin In The Sun by Lorraine Hansberry. Broward College, Central Campus Theater in building 6, on Sunday, the 1st of November. The play was performed by Broward College students. The type of stage was Proscenium stage with extended apron. I thought it was a little bit small, but it did not show as a problem. The pre-show was dark and a feel of suspense. I felt excited to see how everything would play out. The play takes place down south of Chicago in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. The production was much aRead MoreLorraine Hansberry s A Raisin1995 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages In A Raisin in the Sun, Lorraine Hansberry utilizes the insurance check to symbolize the American Dream as the check provides the members of Younger family with the opportunity to achieve their aspirations. The concept of the check reveals WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s and MamaÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of themselves and of their lifestyle, and their responses to the check reveals their contrasting approaches for escaping their impoverished world; therefore, WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s and MamaÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics and reaction to the arrival of theRead MoreLorraine Hansberry s A Raisin Of The Sun1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"A Raisin in the SunÃ¢â¬ is about the Younger Family who live in a small apartment in Chicago. The family is torn apart as every member has different dreams and goals, yet Mama and her daughter-in-law Ruth desperately attempt to hold the family all together. In both the movie and the play, the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams remain the same. Mama wants her family to get along and she wants t o purchase a house. Her son, Walter, wants the life insurance money from his father to invest in a liquor store to achieve hisRead MoreLorraine Hansberry s A Raisin Essay1445 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A Raisin in the Sun is a dramatic play written by Lorraine Hansberry in 1957 and debut on Broadway in 1959. Lorraine Hansberry used the title A Raisin in the Sun from Harlem A Dream Deferred a poem by Langston Hughes, Which ponders the question of what happens to a dream if itÃ¢â¬â¢s never achieved. The play helps shed light on the lives and struggles of a black family during the Civil Rights movement. The play was set in the Southside of Chicago during the Civil Rights movement, sometime between 1945Read MoreLorraine Hansberry s A Raisin982 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesauthor is talking about, it is better to ask them directly in person, but the unfortunate part is that they might be dead. In the play, A Raisin in the Sun, the author, Lorraine Hansberry, choose to name her play from a famous poem by Langston Hughes. It is difficult to really know why she choose HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ poem but there are reasons to infer. Lorraine Hansberry choose to name her play after Langston HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ poem because of what the poem meant and that poem closely related to the characters within the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(64) " both male and females are equally the members of joint family\." NATIONAL LAW INSTITUTE UNIVERSITY BHOPAL VI TRIMESTER FAMILY LAW Ã¢â¬â II HINDU WOMEN AND THEIR COPARCENARY RIGHTS SUBMITTED TO Ã¢â¬â SUBMITTED BY Ã¢â¬â Ms. Kavita Singh Archana 2011 B. A. We will write a custom essay sample on Hindu Women and Their Coparcenary Rights or any similar topic only for you Order Now ,LL. B 79 VI Trimester INDEX SERIAL NUMBER |HEADINGS |PAGE NUMBER | |(1) |INTRODUCTION |3 | |(2) |TRADITIONAL POSITION |4 | |(3) |DAYABHAGA COPARCENARY SYSTEM |4 | |(4) |MITAKSHARA COPARCENARY SYSTEM |4 | |(5) |MARUMAKKATTYAM LAW |5 | |(6) |POSITION OF WOMEN UNDER CONSTITUTION |6 | |(7) |CONCEPT OF COPARCENARY AND JOINT PROPERTY |7 | |(8) |PARLIAMENTARY DEBATE |7 | |(9) |SECTION 6 OF HINDU SUCCESSION ACT |8 | |(10) |NEW COPARCENARY UNDER STATE ACTS 10 | |(11) |WOMAN AS KARTA |12 | |(12) |JUDICIAL INTERPRETATION |13 | |(13) |PROBLEMS OF COPARCENARY RIGHTS OF WOMEN |14 | |(14) |RECOMMENDATIONS |15 | |(15) |CONCLUSION |16 | |(16) |BIBLIOGRAPHY |17 | INTRODUCTION The Constitution of India provides that every person is entitled for equality before law and equal protection of the laws and thereby prohibits discrimination on the basis of caste, sex and creed. The discrimination on the basis of sex is permissible only as protective measures to the female citizens as there is need to empower women who have suffered gender discrimination for centuries. Since time immemorial the framing of all property laws have been exclusively for the benefit of man, and woman has been treated as subservient, and dependent on male support. The right to property is important for the freedom and development of a human being. Prior to the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 shastric and customary laws that varied from region to region governed Hindus and sometimes it varied in the same region on a caste basis resulting in diversity in the law. Consequently in matters of succession also, there were different schools. The multiplicity of succession laws in India, diverse in their nature, owing to their varied origin made the property laws even mere complex. The ultimate sufferers of these complexities are women as their position regarding property rights is vulnerable in a coparcenary system. In our project we are trying to analyze the discrimination against women under Hindu Succession Act, 1956. The paper begins with a study of devolution of property in various traditional schools. It then proceeds to analyze the position of women in the Constitution of India. The focus of this paper is on the concept of coparcenary and the inherent discrimination meted on the women by depriving them proprietary rights in the Hindu Succession Act, 1956. Finally, we have analyzed the new notion of coparcenary under various State amendments and the pros and cons of these amendments in the light of right to equality guaranteed under the Constitution of India. TRADITIONAL POSITION The entire concept of coparcenary originates in the Classical Hindu law, so it becomes imperative to understand the position under these traditional schools before we proceed further Ã¢â¬â THE DAYABHAGA COPARCENARY SYSTEM The Dayabhaga School is followed in primarily in West Bengal, Bihar, Assam and parts of Orissa. According to this school neither son nor daughter gets by birth or by survivorship a right in the family property, though joint family and joint property is recognized in this school. It lays down only one mode of succession and the same rules of inheritance apply whether the family is divided or undivided and whether the property is ancestral or self-acquired. In this school neither sons nor daughters become coparceners at birth nor do they have rights in the family property during their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s lifetime. However, on his death, they inherit as tenants-in-common. It is a remarkable feature of the Dayabhaga School that the daughters also get equal shares along with their brothers. But, since this ownership arises only on the extinction of the fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ownership none can compel the father to partition the property in his lifetime and the latter is free to give or sell the property without their consent. Therefore, under the Dayabhaga law, succession rather than survivorship is the rule. If one of the male heirs dies, his heirs, including females such as his wife and daughter would become members of the joint property, not in their own right, but representing him and manage the property on behalf of the other members in the Dayabhaga School. MITAKSHARA COPARCENARY SYSTEM The Mitakshara law is followed extensively in India. According to this school, a son by birth acquires a right and interest in the joint family property. But, the interest in the property is restricted to three generations of male lineal descendants, which includes son, grandson and the great grandson. These three constitute a class of coparceners, based on birth in the family. Under the Mitakshara system, joint family property devolves by survivorship within the coparcenary. This means that with every birth or death of a male in the family, the share of every other surviving male either gets diminished or enlarged. For example, if a coparcenary consists of a father and his two sons, each would own one third of the property. If another son is born in the family, automatically the share of each male is reduced to one fourth. But, no female is recognized as a member of the coparcenary in Mitakshara law. We find many variations of this school in different parts of India. According to the Bengal, Banaras and Mithila sub- schools of Mitakshara recognise five female relationsÃ¢â¬âÃ widow, daughter, mother, paternal grandmother, and paternal great-grand mother as being entitled to inherit.  The Madras sub-school recognized the heritable capacity of a larger number of females including the sonÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter and the sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s heirs who are expressly named as heirs in Hindu Law of Inheritance (Amendment) Act, 1929.  The sonÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter and the daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter ranked as bandhus in Bombay and Madras. The Bombay school which is most liberal to women, recognizes a number of other female heirs, including a half sister, fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s sister and women married into the family such as stepmother, sonÃ¢â¬â¢s widow, brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s widow and also many other females classified as bandhus. THE MARUMAKATYAM SYSTEM This system prevailed in Kerela wherein the family was joint and a household consisted of the mother and her children with joint rights in property. The lineage was traced through the female line i. e. matrilineal. The joint family so formed is known as Tarwad. In this system both male and females are equally the members of joint family. You read "Hindu Women and Their Coparcenary Rights" in category "Papers" Son be the member of motherÃ¢â¬â¢s coparcenary but sonÃ¢â¬â¢s son would not be the member of this system. He will be member of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s Tarwad. Here both male and female accrues interest in property. This system explains how traits moved towards matriarch cal from patriarch cal. However, joint family system in Kerela are abolished by Kerela Joint Family Abolition Act. But even today at some places customary law governs. THE POSITION OF WOMEN UNDER THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA The framers of the Indian Constitution have taken special care to ensure that the State should take positive steps to give women equal status with men. Articles 14, 15(2), (3) and Article 16 of the Constitution of India, attempt not only inhibit discrimination against women but in appropriate circumstances provide a free hand to the State to provide protective discrimination in favour of women. Also Part IV of the Constitution which contains the Directive Principles of State Policy interalia provides that the State shall endeavor to ensure equality among individuals. Notwithstanding these Constitutional mandates and directives, a woman is still neglected and the rights of the women is blatantly disregarded by some of the provisions of personal laws like the inherent discrimination and inequality in the Mitakshara coparcenary under Section 6 of the Hindu Succession Act, 1956. But, to say that coparcenary rights under Mitakshara system violates Article 14 raises an important question- Does Ã¢â¬Å"laws in forceÃ¢â¬ in Article 13(1) of the Constitution include personal laws? The Apex Court has yet to give a definitive view on this point. But in State of Bombay v Narsu Appa Mali the Bombay High Court took the view that the term Ã¢â¬Å"laws in forceÃ¢â¬ includes only laws passed or made by legislature or other competent authority and does not include personal laws. But in the Supreme Court in Sant Ram v Labh Singh and in Shri Krishna Singh v Mathura Ahir has accepted the contrary. But, Seervai is of the opinion that- Ã¢â¬Å"We have seen that there is no difference between the expression Ã¢â¬Ëexisting lawÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬Ëlaw in forceÃ¢â¬â¢ and consequently, personal law would be Ã¢â¬Ëexisting lawÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëlaw in forceÃ¢â¬â¢. This consideration is strengthened by the consideration that custom, usage, and statutory law are so inextricably mixed up in personal law that it would be difficult to ascertain the residue of personal law outside themÃ¢â¬  THE CONCEPT OF COPARCENARY AND JOINT PROPERTY In the Hindu system, ancestral property has traditionally been held by a joint Hindu family consisting of male coparceners. Coparcenary can be defined as a narrower body of persons within a joint family and consisting of father, son, sonÃ¢â¬â¢s son and sonÃ¢â¬â¢s sonÃ¢â¬â¢s son. Ancestral property continues to be governed by a wholly partrilineal regime like the Mitakshara school, wherein property descends only through the male line as only the male members of a joint Hindu family have an interest by birth in the joint or coparcenary property. Since a woman cannot be a coparcener, she is not entitled to a share in the ancestral property by birth. But a sonÃ¢â¬â¢s share in the property would increase in case the father dies interstate would be in addition to the share he has on birth. This is a clear discrimination against women. PARLIAMENTARY DEBATE ON THE ADOPTION OF MITAKSHARA COPARCENARY SYSTEM TheÃ provisions regarding succession in the Hindu CodeÃ Bill, asÃ originallyÃ framedÃ byÃ theÃ B. N. RauÃ CommitteeÃ and pilotedÃ byÃ Dr. Ambedkar,Ã Ã wasÃ Ã forÃ Ã abolishingÃ Ã the MitaksharaÃ coparcenary with its concept of survivorshipÃ and the sonÃ¢â¬â¢s right by birth in a joint familyÃ property and substituting it with the principle of inheritance by succession. These proposals met with a stormÃ of conservative opposition. TheÃ extentÃ ofÃ Ã opposition within the government itself can be gauged fromÃ theÃ factÃ thatÃ theÃ thenÃ Law Minister Mr. Biswas, on the floor of the house, expressedÃ himself againstÃ daughtersÃ inheriting property from their natalÃ families. Sita Ram S Jajoo fromÃ MadhyaÃ Bharat, identifiedÃ theÃ reason for the opposition accurately,Ã when he stated:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Here we feel theÃ pinchÃ because it touches ourÃ pockets. We male members of this house are in a huge majority. I do not wish that theÃ tyrannyÃ of the majority may be imposed on the minority, the female members of this house. Ã¢â¬Å" However, the majorityÃ prevailed when the Bill was finally passed in 1956. When Dr. Ambedkar was questioned as to how the provisions relating to coparcenary was retained in spite of strong opposition he said:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"It was not a compromise. My enemies combined with my enthusiastic supporters thought that theyÃ might damn the Bill by making it appear worse than it was.  By the retention of the Mitakshara coparcenary without including females it meant that females cannot inherit ancestral property as males do. If a joint family gets divided, each male coparcener takes his share and females get nothing. Thus the law by excluding the daughters from participating in coparcenary ownership not only contributed to an inequity against females but has led to oppression and negation of their right to equality and appears to be a mockery of the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution.  SECTION 6 OF THE HINDU SUCCESSION ACT, 1956. Section 6 deals with the devolution of interest of a Hindu male in coparcenary property and recognizes the rule of devolution by survivorship among the members of the coparcenary. The provision relating to co-parcenary property in the Hindu succession Act 1956 is Section 6 which provides that if a male Hindu dies leaving behind his share in Mithakshara Co-parcenary property, such property will pass on to his sons, sonÃ¢â¬â¢s sonÃ¢â¬â¢s, sonÃ¢â¬â¢s sonÃ¢â¬â¢s son by survivorship, on surviving members. In case there are female relatives like daughter, widow, mother, daughter of predeceased son daughter of predeceased daughter widow of predeceased son, widow of predeceased son of a predeceased son, then the interest of the deceased co-parcenary will pass on to his heirs by succession and not by survivorship. Example: If Ã¢â¬Å"cÃ¢â¬ dies leaving behind his two sons only, and no female heirs of class I then property of Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ passes to his sons by survivorship since there are no female relatives like daughter or any other member specified in the class I of first schedule. In case Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ dies leaving behind two sons and three daughters, then property of Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ will pass on to his sons and daughters by succession in the following manner. Firstly property of Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ is divided among Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ and his two sons. The shares of Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ and his two sons are C gets one-third and each son one-third. The sons are entitled to the equal share of the property along with the father. But the daughters are entitled to the share in the share of the deceased Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ along with other sons. So the sons will get one-third of the property and a share, which is one-fifth in the share of deceased Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ . Even under the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 the daughter does not take equal share with the son. The law by excluding daughter from participating in the coparcenary ownership not only contributes to her discrimination on the ground of gender but also has led to oppression and negation of her fundamental right of equality guaranteed in the Constitution having regard to the need to render social justice to women. HINDU SUCCESSION (AMENDMENT) ACT, 2005 W. R. T SECTION 6 Considering the Principle of Equality under The Constitution, Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 came up. According to amendment, the daughter of a coparcener shall- 1) By birth become a coparcenary in her own right in the same manner as the son; 2) Have same rights in the coparcenary as she would have had if she had been a son; 3) Be subject to same liabilities in respect of the said coparcenary property as that of a son, 4) She is allotted the same share in property as that to son. And any reference to Hindu Mitakshara coparcener shall be deemed to include a reference to a daughter of a coparcener. Now the mode of devolution is no more survivorship but has become succession. This is a drastic amendment, which has changed the whole scenario. Now women are not anyway unequal to men. This is a step taken to bring them at par with men in this society. NEW COPARCENARY UNDER STATE ACTS The concept of the Mitakshara coparcenary property retained under Section 6 of the Hindu Succession Act has not been amended ever since its enactment. But, five states in India namely, Kerela, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Karnataka have taken cognizance of the situation an have made necessary amendments. As per the law of four of these states, Ã (Kerela excluded), in a joint Hindu family governed by Mitakshara law, the daughter of a coparcener shall by birth become a coparcener in her own right in the same manner as the son. Kerela, however, has gone one step further and abolished the right to claim any interest in any property of an ancestor during his or her lifetime founded on the mere fact that he or she was born in the family. In fact, the Kerela Act has abolished the Joint Hindu family system altogether including the Mitakshara, Marumakkattayam, Aliyasantana and Nambudri systems. In Kerela the joint tenants has been replaced by tenants in common. The approach of the Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Karnataka state legislatures is, strikingly different from that of Kerela and these states instead of abolishing the right by birth strengthened it, while broadly removing the gender discrimination inherent in Mitakshara coparcenary. The broad features of the legislations are more or less couched in the same language. The State enactments in these four states provide thatÃ¢â¬â a) the daughter of a coparcener in a Joint Hindu Family governed by Mitakshara law, shall become a coparcener by birth in her own right in the same manner as the son and have similar rights in the coparcenary property and be subject to similar liabilities and disabilities; (b) On partition of a joint Hindu family of the copa rcenary property, she will be allotted a share equal to that of a son. The share of the predeceased son or a predeceased daughter on such partition would be allotted to the surviving children of such predeceased son or predeceased daughter, if alive at the time of the partition. (c) This property shall be held by her with the incidents of coparcenary ownership and shall be regarded as property capable of being disposed of by her by will or other testamentary disposition. (d) The state enactments are prospective in nature and do not apply to a daughter who is married prior to, or to a partition which has been effected before the commencement of the Act. In Kerela Section 4 (i)of the Kerela Joint Family System (Abolition) Act, lays down that all the members of a Mitakshara Coparcenary will hold the property as tenants in common on the day the Act comes into force as if a partition had taken place and each holding his or her share separately. But the major criticism against the Kerela model is that if the Joint family was abolished today in the other states then a deemed partition would take place and women not being coparceners would get nothing more. Whereas if they are made coparceners, then they become equal sharers. WOMEN AS KARTA The law commission has rightly observed that although the Hindu Succession (State Amendment) Acts have conferred upon the daughter of a coparcener status but there is still reluctance to making her a Karta. This is because of the general male view that she is incapable of managing the properties or running the business and is generally susceptible to the influence of her husband and his family, if married. This seems to be patently unfair as women are proving themselves equal to any task and if women are influenced by their husbands and their families, men are no less influenced by their wives and their families. If women can act as coparcenaries then they must also be given the powers of Karta. The shastra is clear that in the absence of senior member a junior member (if he has reached the age of legal competence) may incur debts for the needs of the family, and in the absence of a male member a female member may do so. The Sanskrit texts empower women to act, as Karta in instances like when the husband is away or missing or the son is yet to attain majority. Various texts go to prove that the Ã¢â¬Ëwomen in defacto is independent; as soon as her husband returns or her son attains majority she becomes dependant, but meanwhile the responsibility rests with her, and the powers should be obviously be allowed to her accordinglyÃ¢â¬â¢.  It is ridiculous to contend that a lady may be fit to be a High Court Judge she is not entitled to exercise within her own family the discretion that a manager can exercise. Ã Ã JUDICIAL INTERPRETATION There are conflicting opinions of the various High Courts on the question of women coparcenary and thus a Karta. The matter for the first time came up before a full Judge Bench of the Nagpur High Court in Kesheo v Jagannath where it was held that Ã¢â¬Å"any adult member may be the manager of the joint family, and in case of a need a step mother could bind her step son, who was a minor, by alienation of the joint Hindu family property in whatever character she purported to actÃ¢â¬ . The next case that dealt with this problem was Hanooman PrasadÃ¢â¬â¢s Case where the powers of the widow mother as a manager of the property of her minor son was discussed. The Court in this case held that Ã¢â¬Å"the test of the ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s act was not who she was or in what capacity she purported to act? But whether the act was necessary or the minorÃ¢â¬â¢s interest as understood by lawÃ¢â¬ . The same view was followed in Pandurang Dohke v Pandurang Garle, where the widowed mother passed a promissory note for necessity, as a guardian of her two minor sons. She was a defacto manager and was held to have the managerial powers and the sons could not repudiate the debt. The view of female being the manager of the Joint Hindu family was further strengthened when the WomanÃ¢â¬â¢s Right to Property Act, 1937 was passed, which made the widow the owner of the coparcenary interest. But the Madras High Court in- Seethabai v Narasimha gave a contrary decision. In this case the widows claimed that they were the undivided members of the coparcenary by virtue of the operation of the Act of 1937, they objected to the appointment of the guardian for the property of the minor sons. The Court appointed one widow, as the guardian of one minor and a stranger was appointed as the guardian of the other. None of the widows, it was held could be the manager. It was held that to be a manager one must be a pukka coparcener, a male with a birth right and not a mere statutory interest. This decision took a step back and adversely affected the position of women. The similar strand of thought was followed in Mayuri Padhano v Lokananidhi Lingaraj where it was held that a mother, when the husband is alive, couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a manager. She might indeed act as a guardian of her son, if her husband was dead and perhaps act as a defacto guardian. But as a manager she had no power whatsoever. The principle that a woman could be a manager was decisively rejected. The High Court of Patna has asserted the same view in Sheogulam v Kishan Choudhuri, it was denied that a mother of a minor son, during the long absence of her husband might act as a Ã¢â¬ËKartaÃ¢â¬â¢ and incur debts for family purposes and further that such loans would not be binding up on the family. The matter finally came up before the HonÃ¢â¬â¢ble Supreme Court in Commissioner of I. T. v Seth Govindram Sugar Mills, where it upheld the view taken by the Madras High Court and has overruled the decision of Nagpur High Court as they felt that it was contrary to the established rules in the dharmashashtras. SUCCESSION TO PROPERTY OF FEMALE HINDU For the first time in the Indian History U/S 14 of the Hindu Succession Act 1956, female Hindu is given absolute ownership over the property acquired by Will, sale or by any other lawful means. So far as succession to property of female Hindu is concerned the daughter, son, and the husband takes equal share by succession, which means while she is living no member can demand partition of the property. She can dispose the property either by will or by sale, if she dies without disposing the property then members gets right to inherit the property by succession. Section 15 of the Hindu Succession Act deals with the devolution of the property owned by Hindu female. If the Hindu female has inherited any property from her father or mother, such property devolves upon the heirs of her father, if there are no legal heirs, which are specified in Section 15, like son, daughter, children of predeceased son or daughter. Likewise if the Hindu female has inherited any property from her husband or father in law, such property will devolve on the heirs of her husband if there no legal heirs like son, daughter, and children of predeceased son or daughter. DWELLING HOUSE But in case of dwelling house, the daughter U/S 23 of the Hindu Succession Act 1956, cannot claim any share by partition until male members choose to divide the share in the dwelling house. In case the daughter is unmarried, she is entitled to a right of residence there in. The daughter may loose her right to share in the property in any of the following circumstances: Section (26) Ã¢â¬â if daughter ceases to be a Hindu by converting to another religion. Section (25) Ã¢â¬â if daughter commits murder or abets the commission of murder of a person whose property she could have inherited. However she will not be disqualified to inherit the property only by reason of any disease, defect or deformity. PROBLEMS BY GIVING COPARCENARY RIGHTS TO WOMEN 1) Male members of the coparcenary oppose the giving of coparcenary rights to women as they are the one who manage the property. 2) Women after marriage have to change their family relations and they support their husbands in amily matters, which is quite unsatisfactory for the maternal family members. CONCLUSION There will no doubt be opposition in implementation. In fact, the land fragmentation and joint family stability arguments go back to the 1940s when the Hindu Code was being debated. Changing social at titudes takes time. Legal awareness will require a campaign too. But legal reform is also important in and of itself since it reflects our vision of the kind of society we want. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Deewan Paras, Family Law, Allahabad Law agency 6 ed. 2) www. google. com 3) www. yahoo. com Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  Mulla, Principles of Hindu Law 17th ed by S. A. Desai, p. 168. (1998)  Ibid. 3] Article 38(2) Ã¢â¬â The State shall strive to minimize the inequalities in income, and endeavor to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities, not only among individuals but also amongst groups of people residing in different or engaged in different vocations.  AIR 1952 Bom 84.  AIR 1965 SC 314.  (1981) 3 SCC 689. Seervai, H. M, Constitutional Law of India 4th edn. , p 677 (1991).  The Constituent Assembly of India (Legislative) Debates Vol. VI 1949 Part II.  Ibid  Law Commission of India 174th report on Ã¢â ¬ËProperty Rights of Women: Proposed Reforms under the Hindu LawÃ¢â¬â¢, May 2000.  The Kerela Joint Family System (Abolition) Act, 1975; The Hindu Succession (Andhra Pradesh Amendment)Act, 1986; The Hindu Succession (Tamil Nadu Amendment)Act, 1989; The Hindu Succession (Maharashtra Amendment)Act, 1994; The Hindu Succession (Karnataka Amendment) Act, 1994 12] The Kerela Joint Family System (Abolition) Act, 1975- S (4) Joint tenancyÃ to be replaced by tenancy in common Ã¢â¬âÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (1) All membersÃ ofÃ anÃ undividedÃ Hindu familyÃ governedÃ byÃ theÃ Mitakshara law holding any coparcenary propertyÃ onÃ the day this Act comes into force shall with effect from that day, be deemedÃ toÃ hold it as tenants-in-common as if a partition hadÃ taken place among all the members of that undivided Hindu familyÃ asÃ respects suchÃ property and as if each one of them is holding his or her share separat ely as full owner thereof; Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall affect the right to maintenanceÃ or the right to marriage or funeral expenses outÃ ofÃ theÃ coparcenary property or the rightÃ toÃ residence,Ã ifÃ any,Ã ifÃ Ã the membersÃ ofÃ anÃ undividedÃ Hindu family, otherÃ thanÃ personsÃ whoÃ Ã haveÃ Ã become entitled to hold their shares separately, Ã any such right can be enforced if this Act had not been passed. 2) All members of a joint Hindu family, other than an undivided Hindu family referred to in sub-section (1), holding any joint family property on the day of this Act comes into force, shall, with effect from that day be deemed to hold it as tenants-in-common, as if a partition of such property per capita had taken place among all the members of the family living on the day aforesaid, whether such members were entitled to claim such partition or not under the law applicable to them, and as i. e. eac h one of the members is holding his or her share separately as full owner thereof.  17 Derret, J Duncan, Ã¢â¬Å"May a Hindu Women be the Manager of a Joint Family at Mitakshara LawÃ¢â¬ , Bom. L. R.. , J. , Ã p. 42.  Derret, J Duncan, Ã¢â¬Å"May a Hindu Women be the Manager of a Joint Family at Mitakshara LawÃ¢â¬ , Bom. L. R.. , J. , Ã p. 42.  Derrett, J Duncan, Ã¢â¬ËA critique of Modern Hindu LawÃ¢â¬â¢, 1st edn. , NM Tripathi Pvt Ltd, Bombay (1970).   AIR Nag. 81 Hanooman Prasad Pandey V. Musumoot Baboee (1856)   AIR Nag. 178  AIR 1945 Mad. 306   AIR Ori. 1.   AIR Pat. 212.  AIR 1966 SC 24. How to cite Hindu Women and Their Coparcenary Rights, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
The sensational debut album of indie acoustic band Burnside Hooker has arrived! A play on the names of two Confederate Civil War generals Ã¢â¬â Ambrose Burnside and Joseph Hooker Ã¢â¬â their Ã¢â¬Å"Rail Yard HymnsÃ¢â¬ marches on like an army. And pumped with country flavor, modern sound, and outright fun, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a hotspot for musical fun and fiesta. Even better, the band sounds great. Lead singer Rachel Bonacquisti dazzles every song with a crowning, magnificent voice. But each song is defined by more than the swinging lyrics. Fantastically acoustic and tangible, each song opens up in a new light with ever-dashing instrumentals. Time to lay down your synth-zapping headphones, bud. Actual guitar, viola, drums, cello, and bass shake up the squeeze-line boundaries of what makes country music American, even edging into jazzier realms on occasion. EverythingÃ¢â¬â¢s so loose and raw (and cough, cough, unedited) that youÃ¢â¬â¢re bound to sigh in relief before you run up to cheer on the show. We will write a custom essay sample on Rail Yard Hymns by Burnside Hooker or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page An excitable mix of 10 songs rubs off authentically and sweetly Americana, not to mention that each has an unforgettable story. Opening credits Ã¢â¬Å"Seasick WomanÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"OpheliaÃ¢â¬ establish volatile, sizzling soundscapes filled with equal parts howl and haunt. Ã¢â¬Å"Red BettyÃ¢â¬ is like a classic jaunt into a playful downtown nightclub. Ã¢â¬Å"StrangersÃ¢â¬ has the ability to make you feel reminiscent euphoria; itÃ¢â¬â¢s exciting, bittersweet, and empowering. Ã¢â¬Å"ScarsÃ¢â¬ is ultraviolet energy, lights twinkling then cat-eye fierce. Ã¢â¬Å"TapsÃ¢â¬ is like a gentle indie anthem, and Ã¢â¬Å"Logan SquareÃ¢â¬ marks the end of a thrilling evolution of sound, the jolly ukulele taking care to promise (thank goodness) a return. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s final; this albumÃ¢â¬â¢s lessons, love, and lust offer real hymns to live by.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Mobile Marketing Strategy How to Build One the Smart Way How is your mobile marketing strategy doing? If you canÃ¢â¬â¢t answer this question, itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to change that. Data shows that marketing is going mobile more and more by the day. In fact, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a good chance youÃ¢â¬â¢re reading this on a mobile device right now. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look at some numbers: Mobile accounts for 65%Ã of the time people spend consuming media 59% of smartphone ownersÃ expect websites to be mobile-optimized 68% of companiesÃ are investing in mobile marketing These are a just a few stats, but together, they tell one compelling story: itÃ¢â¬â¢s past time for all of us to pay attention to mobile. Understanding the importance of mobile marketing isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough on its own. You also need to build an actionable strategy to provide users with a great mobile experience across all your content. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s where this post comes in. Read on to learn: How to understand the way your audience uses their mobile device. How to optimize your brandÃ¢â¬â¢s overall mobile presence. How to measure the impact of your efforts. Mobile Marketing Strategy: How to Build One the Smart WayDownload Your Free Mobile Marketing Strategy Pitch Deck Template + Infographic Doing mobile marketing right requires cross-team collaborationÃ and leadership buy-in. To help state your case, use this free Mobile Marketing Pitch Template. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s pre-built with important statistics you can use to build the business case for investing in mobile marketing. It also includes fill-in-the-blanks sections to tailor your proposed strategies, tactics, and recommendations to your own situation. Plus, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve also included a free Mobile Marketing Infographic packed with stats and curated research. With these resources and the information in this post, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have everything you need to educate your team and implement a comprehensive mobile marketing strategy. Why Should You Care About Mobile Marketing Strategy? According to Hitwise, nearly 60% of searches come from mobile devices. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s an enormous number. For marketers, that means your content needs to be optimized for mobile experiences. If it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t, you could risk missing opportunities to convert more website visitors into customers. This number is an average compiled from data across 11 different industries. Even at the low end of the graph, 39% is still a significant amount of searches. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s one thing this data makes abundantly clear: you need to develop a mobile marketing strategy. Like so many things in the marketing world, this is easier said than done. However, with the right approach, you can make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢re not missing out on as much as 72% of your total potential audience through organic search. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready to build your own mobile content strategy, keep reading. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re about to dig into: Develop a strategy for mobile marketing Optimize content for users on the go Plan and execute your strategy with LetÃ¢â¬â¢s roll up our sleeves and get to it. Ready to build your #mobile #marketing strategy?Developing a Mobile Content Strategy Plan your work. Then, work your plan. We say this all the time at . If youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to succeed, you need to know what youÃ¢â¬â¢ll do, before you sit down to get it done. Preparing a mobile marketing strategy is no exception. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to ask your developers to build you a responsive website and then call it a day (although responsive design is important). You need to put real thought into how youÃ¢â¬â¢ll reach mobile audiences, and what your online presence really looks like to those users. Recommended Reading: The Complete 14-Step Content Strategy That Will Boost Your Results By 434% Understanding How Your Audience Uses Mobile Devices Knowing where your audience uses their phone or tablet can help inform how you reach them. For example, people traveling to a new city will likely look for restaurants, hotels, and events near their destination. A farmer might browse their social media while riding in the tractor (no, seriously). An office worker could catch up on industry news with their iPad while lounging on the couch. Each of these people has a different purpose for being on their device. Accordingly, they have different expectations, too. If you know how theyÃ¢â¬â¢re likely to find you, then you can be better prepared to provide them with the right content, at the right time. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s how you can gain this insight. Run A Survey Ask, and you shall receive. Run a simple poll with PolldaddyÃ or Survey MonkeyÃ and ask people how they use their device. Here are three simple questions your survey can include: Which types of mobile devices do you use? [Phones, tablets, etc.] Where do you access content with your phone or tablet? [At work, at home, while traveling, etc.] What types of content do you consume on your mobile device? [News, entertainment, video, blog posts, social media, etc.] The data you get from your own audience will guide you in the right direction. Recommended Listening: How to Boost Your Results With Original Research With Andy Crestodina From Orbit Media Studios Use Google Analytics Google Analytics can give you some idea how your audience is using their mobile devices, too. Log into your account. Then, click Audience, and drill into the Mobile drop-down: Next, click onto Overview. Here, you can get a breakdown of how many of your website visitors are on mobile or tablet. Under devices, you can also see which specific phones or tablets people are using to find you: Next, click on Users Flow. Then, click All Users, and scroll down to and click Mobile Traffic. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve done this, click Apply. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll then see something like this: Now, you can see where mobile users land on your site, and where they go next from there. This can help you determine which pages and content are most interesting to your mobile audience. NOTE: Google Analytics separates Mobile (as in mobile phones) and Tablet traffic. If youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to see your user flow from tablets, repeat the previous steps, but scroll down to the bottom of the All Users window, and find Tablet Traffic: Optimizing Content for Mobile Devices When youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready to execute your mobile marketing strategy, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to be prepared to optimize your content specifically for mobile users. Writing for Mobile Devices Phone screens are relatively small. Even larger phablet-type phones are small compared to the PC youÃ¢â¬â¢re probably writing your content on. That means youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to write in a way thatÃ¢â¬â¢s easily readable on a smaller screen. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s how. Use Bullet Points: Bulleted text is easily scannable. If you have information that can be condensed down to list form, bullet it out. Write Short, Punchy Headlines: This is a matter of space. Shorter headlines fit better on smaller screens. If you can keep them down to six or seven words, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be more likely to hook the attention of someone scrolling by. Longer headlines may get cut off the screen, and therefore be less appealing to click. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of a well-optimized headline for mobile: And hereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example that could be condensed: In this example, the headline is shortened and legible on the graphic, which is easier to read on a mobile device. It might not be possible to optimize every headline you write this way. However, itÃ¢â¬â¢s worth keeping this in mind as you and your team are crafting content. Use Clear Section Headings: Make use of H2 and H3 headings. If possible, avoid using anything H4 or smaller, since it can create a cluttered visual appearance with too much visual hierarchy going on. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re using WordPress, hereÃ¢â¬â¢s where youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find your header controls: Keep Paragraphs Brief: Giant walls of text are a pain to read on phones. Keep your sentences under 25 words and paragraphs two or three sentences each. You can exercise a small amount of leeway on thisÃ but do so sparingly. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of a piece with crisp, concise paragraphs: And hereÃ¢â¬â¢s another thatÃ¢â¬â¢s decidedly more difficult to read: Front Load Email Subject Lines: Email subject lines get cut off at a shorter length on mobile than they do on desktop. So, place your most attention-grabbing copy at the beginning of your subject line. If youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to preview what your subject line might look like, use our Headline Analyzer. Enter your subject line: Then scroll down to here: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll now have an idea how your subject line will appear. Recommended Reading: This is the Way to Write Email Subject Lines That Get More Clicks Optimize Your Visual Content For Mobile Well-optimized can make or break your mobile experience, too. Follow this advice to keep your mobile presence finely tuned. Use Optimal Image File Sizes: Upload images to your site or blog at the exact size you want them to appear. Otherwise, your CMS will be forced to resize them as your pages load. This will cause them to load slower, and potentially cause users to bounce and visit a different site. If you have a high number of large images on your site (and youÃ¢â¬â¢re using WordPress), there may be a quick fix solution here for you. WP SmushÃ is a WordPress plugin that can detect and compress large image file sizes on your site, and bring them down to a more reasonable size: Make Text Legible On Small Screens: Ensure your fonts are large enough to be readable on a phone. Use your best judgment. If you can read something, odds are your audience canÃ¢â¬â¢t either. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of an image thatÃ¢â¬â¢s clearly readable on a phone: Technical Website + Blog Considerations Beyond your actual content creation, your blog and website need to be built with mobile in mind. Here are some ways to ensure both are easy to use on phones and tablets. Use A Responsive Site Design (Or Have a Separate Mobile Site): There is some debate out there over when to use responsive design versus having a separate mobile site. In either case, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to have a site that looks good and works well on phones and tablets. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re a marketer, this is something you likely donÃ¢â¬â¢t have much control over. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also something your development team should understand. However, if this is a pain point or roadblock, discuss with your developers. Here are some talking points you can drop: 80% of all internet users have a mobile phone. Why leave money on the table? Mobile users have different expectations than desktop users. If your site doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t cater to them, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll leave (and buy from someone else). Google favors websites that offer a strong mobile experience. The more you can tie the conversation back to how it helps make money, the more likely you are to be successful here. Use GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s Mobile-Friendly Test Tool: How can you know whether your site is truly mobile-friendly? Use this free tool from Google. Type in your URL: And get your analysis in moments: Mobile Search Engine Optimization Considerations The way people search, and the things they search for, might be different when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re on the go (versus when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re on their laptop or home computer). Keep these things in mind while youÃ¢â¬â¢re working on search engine optimization. Optimize For Voice Search: People using their phones are often in busy places and might not stop to type in a search query. Things people on the go typically search for include words like Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"what,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"where.Ã¢â¬ For example, Ã¢â¬Å"How do I get to the nearest coffee shop?,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Where is the Museum of Modern Art?Ã¢â¬ So, how do you find which terms someone might be using to find businesses like yours? Start by doing thorough keyword research as you normally would. Next, consider targeting terms incorporating strings of conversational language around your core keywords. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example: Typical Keyword: Brunch new york city Voice-Optimized Keyword: where is the best brunch in new york city? For a more in-depth guide on optimizing for voice search, read this post from Neil Patel. Recommended Reading: Create the Right Pages to Attract Mobile Searches: In order to show up in local searches, it helps to have the right pages on your site. These could include: Location pages (for brick and mortar stores). You want people to find where you are after all, right? Posts pertaining to local topics. Remember when we mentioned optimizing keyword research for local search? Create content around those keywords. For example, if people search for "best coffee shops minneapolis," a coffee shop could create a post like, "What Makes Our Coffee Shop the Best in Minneapolis?" Your hours and contact information. This is basic stuff, but youÃ¢â¬â¢d be surprised how many websites miss details like this. Recommended Reading: SEO Content Strategy: How to Skyrocket Your Traffic By 594% Implement Location Data In Your Sitemap: If you have a physical location, local SEO should be a top priority for your business. One way to improve your appearance in local searches (which are often mobile searches, too) is to add location data using schema.org markup. This video from Simon Hayer walks through this process step-by-step: For a more detailed guide on implementing schema.org microdata, Kissmetrics did a fantastic job here. Plus, for a complete list of Local Business schemas, the schema.org site has those here. This is a technical task that should be handled by a developer. The benefit for doing so is to make your search results more useful. You can things like: Location Contact Information Opening Hours Price Range Review Ratings Upcoming Events And more. These types of things can improve click-through rates on search results by making them more appealing. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example from a search for upcoming events: If IÃ¢â¬â¢m looking for something to do in my city, this search result gives me a preview into upcoming events before IÃ¢â¬â¢ve even clicked a link. It also takes up more space on the search results page. And if IÃ¢â¬â¢m in a hurry or on the go, guess which search result people in this situation are going to tap? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the one thatÃ¢â¬â¢s most noticeable and most useful in that moment. Be the company that provides those kinds of results. Mobile Email Marketing Considerations According to Salesforce, 79% of marketers say email marketing drives ROI. Plus, according to research from Kahuna cited on Email Monday, 86% of emails are opened on a mobile device. That means thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of opportunity to capitalize on mobile email marketing. Know The Numbers: If you believe what works for desktop should work for mobile when it comes to email, consider these statistics: Mobile accounts for 54% of all email opensÃ (versus 16% on desktop). 70% of users delete emails that donÃ¢â¬â¢t work well on their phones. As more people use their phones for email, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to make sure your emails look and read well on mobile devices. This leads into our next point. Use Mobile-Responsive Email Designs: If you use designed email templates, make sure theyÃ¢â¬â¢re mobile-responsive (or at least easy to view on smartphones). Here at , we use Campaign Monitor for our email newsletters. This platform makes it easy to preview how emails will appear on phones: If you use a similar service (such as MailChimp, AWeber, Constant Contact, or another provider), building mobile-optimized templates should be similarly easy. However, if you use custom-built email templates, talk to your developer about making them more email-friendly. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re likely busy people, though, so be prepared to make a case for why itÃ¢â¬â¢s important. Here are some talking points you can use to begin your discussion: Ã¢â¬Å"Improving the mobile-friendliness of our emails is important for users and bottom line, since research shows 70% of people will delete an emailÃ that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t look good on mobile.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Email drives [INSERT ROI PERCENTAGE] for us, and a better email experience could increase that even further.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Our current email [INSERT METRIC] is at [INSERT PERCENTAGE]. However, we know from research findings that 79% of users read email on their phones. We think a better mobile experience could improve our email marketing performance significantly.Ã¢â¬ With some numbers to support your claims, itÃ¢â¬â¢ll be easier to explain why you need better mobile email design (if yours is currently struggling). TIP: Be prepared to hear that if your emails are underperforming, it could be because your email content is at fault. Compare your desktop vs. mobile email performance to pull numbers showing this isn't the case (assuming it's not actually the case). If desktop email performance is strong but mobile isn't, then you have a starting point to begin investigating whether mobile-friendly design could help. Mobile Social Media Marketing Considerations It feels obvious to say so, but social media is huge on mobile. However, you might be surprised by just how huge. According to Marketing Land, a full 80% of social media activity happens on a mobile device. Here are some tips for making the most mobile for social media marketing. Develop An Event Hashtag Strategy: People want to share their thoughts when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re at events. So, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re hosting an event, develop a unique hashtag. You can bet attendees on their phones will make use of it. Consider Pinterest (If YouÃ¢â¬â¢re Not There Already): According to Mobile Marketing Watch, Ã¢â¬Å"Pinterest is the most mobile social network and 64% of its referred traffic comes from either smartphones or tablet devices.Ã¢â¬ If capturing the attention of mobile audiences is a priority, then consider creating a Pinterest profile, if your business hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t already. Make Social Sharing Buttons Easily Accessible: Again, this is something youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to work out with your developers and designers (if youÃ¢â¬â¢re not using an out-of-the-box website or blog theme). If you want people to share your content on mobile, then it needs to be easy to do without thinking about it too hard. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Ignore Instagram: Think your brand canÃ¢â¬â¢t benefit from being on Instagram? Think again, especially if youÃ¢â¬â¢re targeting teens or young adults. According to WordStream (citing the Pew Research Center), 32% of teens consider InstagramÃ to be Ã¢â¬Å"the most important social network.Ã¢â¬ Recommended Reading: How to Use Hashtags Effectively Without Being Annoying The Ultimate Guide on How to Use Instagram For Business The Ultimate Guide to Marketing With Pinterest What is the Best Placement for Social Media Buttons? Mobile Advertising: Are Marketers Missing Opportunities? People spend a lot of time on their phones. You probably didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need us to tell you that. However, did you know U.S. consumers spend an estimated 87 hours a month browsing on their smartphones, according to Smart Insights? That is a staggering amount of time. It might also make you question how you spend your own time a little bit. One thing it should absolutely make you question, though, is how much youÃ¢â¬â¢re spending on mobile advertising. According to the same report from Smart Insights, while mobile users spend 24% of their time consuming media on their phone, mobile only accounts for 8% of advertising spending. Take a look at this chart: Of course, competitiveness for ad space could differ depending on your industry. One thing thatÃ¢â¬â¢s clear, though, is thereÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunity out there for those willing to go after it. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready to dive deeper into mobile advertising, Single Grain has you covered with this guide. Could mobile advertising be a missed opportunity for your organization?Measuring Mobile Marketing Performance Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve started optimizing your content strategy for mobile, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to measure how youÃ¢â¬â¢re doing. Fortunately, you can get a lot of insight out of Google Analytics. Visit your account and click Mobile in the left-hand navigation. Under Overview, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see high-level data for your siteÃ¢â¬â¢s mobile performance: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll notice you can also see desktop and tablet stats in the same place. This makes it easy to see how your mobile marketing is performing relative to other types of devices. Next, click on Acquisition and drill into All Traffic: Then, click Channels, and All Users: Next, scroll down to Mobile Traffic and click Apply: Now, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to see your mobile marketing performance broken down by channel. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll also be able to compare mobile stats to your overall performance per channel: Which Data Should I Be Concerned With? ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of data you can pay attention to here. However, which data points are the most useful for measuring mobile marketing performance? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s look at a few basic metrics. Traffic: Are people finding your site? If theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not, something could be off with your mobile presence. Since youÃ¢â¬â¢re reading this post though, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have no problems crushing it, right? Mobile Landing Pages: In addition to mobile traffic, also pay attention to where mobile visitors are landing. To find this information in Google Analytics, drill down through Behavior Site Content Landing Pages: Then, make sure you have Mobile Traffic selected (if you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t already). If youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to look at just mobile landing pages, be sure to deselect All Users: Now, scope out your top mobile pages: Now, there are a couple things to note here: Where is your mobile traffic going?Ã Are there pages optimized for mobile that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t getting traffic? Or, is there anything else that jumps out as a surprise? Which pages are performing best on mobile?Ã Which pages are converting best? Which are driving the most traffic? It may be worth creating more content thatÃ¢â¬â¢s similar. Conversion Rate: Ultimately, this is what all your efforts are about. In general, conversion rates are typically lower on mobile than on desktop. Take a look at this graphic from Smart InsightsÃ laying out 2016 ecommerce conversion rates: While your mileage may vary, donÃ¢â¬â¢t be too alarmed if mobile conversions are lower than desktop. Bounce Rate: If people are quick to leave your site, something could be turning them away. However, keep in mind that mobile bounce rates may be a little bit higher than your desktop or tablet bounce rate. According to Rocket Fuel, Ã¢â¬Å"Mobile users are more likely to bounce across the board, so it should reasonably follow that any website with a large, growing percentage of mobile traffic will see a higher bounce rate.Ã¢â¬ Depending on your site, your mobile bounce rate could be Ã¢â¬Å"10% to 20% higherÃ¢â¬ than desktop. If your mobile bounce rate is considerably higher than desktop though, your mobile site could be turning visitors away. This could be a sign to talk with your development team. Source: gorocketfuel.com/the-rocket-blog/whats-the-average-bounce-rate-in-google-analytics/ NOTE: If your bounce rate appears close to zero, but you know youÃ¢â¬â¢re attracting traffic, your Google Analytics account may be incorrectly configured. Going Beyond Google Analytics: Tools And Guides If youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready to step up your mobile marketing measurement, you may require more powerful tools than Google Analytics. Here are some tools and guides to get you started: Tracking Conversions With Kissmetrics: KissMetricsÃ isÃ powerful platform is great for tracking all kinds of metrics on a granular level. Follow this guideÃ to use it to track mobile conversions. Measuring Mobile Ad Campaigns With Mixpanel: If you have a mobile app, Mixpanel can help you track how people are using it. Follow this guideÃ to get started. Which #metrics matter most for #mobile #marketing?Mobile App: Schedule Social Posts on the Go Before we end this post, letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about our new social scheduling mobile app. With it, you can post to your business or clientÃ¢â¬â¢s social accounts no matter where youÃ¢â¬â¢re at. Given the always-on nature of social media marketing, this is helpful for maintaining the social component of your overall mobile marketing strategy. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s what you can do: Schedule social messages on the fly. Add social messages to your content calendar at any time. Whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re at a conference or on your commute, you can always be prepared to post. Stay in the loop away from your desk. No WiFi? No problem. You can now know exactly what social posts you have scheduled, no matter where youÃ¢â¬â¢re at. Avoid panic attacks. Triple-check, pause, or update any social post, anywhere. Stay social. Social media doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always give you much time to react. Make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready with the right response when a trending topic or real-time situation arises. Learn more about how it works here: [INSERT URL]
Monday, March 2, 2020
Energy Definition and Examples Energy is defined as the capacity of a physical system to perform work. However, its important to keep in mind that just because energy exists, that doesnt meanÃ its necessarily available to do work. Forms of Energy Energy exists in several forms such as heat, kinetic or mechanical energy, light, potential energy, and electrical energy. Heat s are energy released by fission and fusion. Other forms of energy may include geothermal energy and classification of energy as renewable or nonrenewable. There may be overlap between forms of energy and an object invariably possesses more than one type at a time. For example, a swinging pendulum has both kinetic and potential energy, thermal energy, and (depending on its composition) may have electrical and magnetic energy. Law of Conservation of Energy According to the law of conservation of energy, the total energy of a system remains constant, though energy may transform into another form. Two billiard balls colliding, for example, may come to rest, with the resulting energy becoming sound and perhaps a bit of heat at the point of collision. When the balls are in motion, they have kinetic energy. Whether they are in motion or stationary, they also have potential energy because they are on a table above the ground. Energy cannot be created, nor destroyed, but it can change forms and is also related to mass. The mass-energy equivalence theory states an object at rest in a frame of reference has a rest energy. If additional energy is supplied to the object, it actually increases that objects mass. For example, if you heat a steel bearing (adding thermal energy), you very slightly increase its mass. Units of Energy The SI unit of energy is the joule (J) or newton-meter (N * m). The joule is also the SI unit of work.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Foundations of scholarship&research - Essay Example This paper examines the basis for business ethics and zooms in to examine the realities in the international markets and why organisations fail to honour the high ethical standards they observe in their home countries (especially in Europe and North America) when they operate in poorer nations like Latin America, Africa, Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia. The paper examines the history of international business from colonial times. It looks at the elements of colonialism that discouraged ethical behaviour in international trade and also traces this to business in the modern era. It then goes to critically evaluate the reasons why ethical behaviour varies across the globe. This is followed by a practical analysis of how non-ethical acts are perpetrated by multinationals in the real world. The paper ends with recommendations for improvements in observing ethical behaviour amongst international businesses. Every human being and entity has two inalienable rights: the rule against bias and the need for fair hearing in judicial matters (Harris & Partington, 1999). This concept has become the basis on which constitutions and judicial systems around the globe have been founded. It is now the basis of best practices in most transactions and operations of entities around the globe. However, the way it is practised around the globe varies considerably. People and entities are required in all situations to treat other people with fairness and equality. When other people are accused of doing the wrong thing, they have the right to a fair trial and this is a two-way thing. With organisations and businesses being entities, they are expected to observe these laws of natural justice in all aspects of their operation. Organisations are legal entities that have the right to sue and be sued (Harris & Partington, 1999). Effectively, organisations/businesses take inputs from the society, process them and sell them out to external parties (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington,